Maryam Alband completed her MPharm degree with first class honours in 2013 at UCL School of Pharmacy, London. Following her registration as a fully qualified pharmacist at Royal Free NHS Foundation Trust, she returned to UCL to undertake a PhD in Translational Sciences and Pharmaceutics. Her work involved the development of a novel medical implant funded by a prestigious NIHR grant that has led to the award of an international travel grant.
Introduction: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide. Glaucoma surgical devices fail due to a scarring response that results in fibrous encapsulation surrounding the device preventing aqueous humour drainage. 3D printing technology has the potential to develop personalized ophthalmic devices or organs with improved cost effectiveness and productivity. Limited experimental data exists as to the biocompatibility response of 3D printed photopolymers. We performed cell adhesion and protein adsorption studies of 3D printed photopolymers compared to materials used in current ophthalmic devices (Silicone, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)) to assess 3D printed materials as a potential route for ophthalmic device development. Methods: 3D printed materials (n=6) were developed using a high-resolution, desktop stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer and compared to materials used in current ophthalmic devices. Protein adsorption was quantified using a micro bicinchoninic acid (Micro BCA) assay and fluorescein-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) adsorption. Cell adhesion (monocytes, fibroblasts) was assessed using Alamar Blue, CyQUANT and Live/Dead assays. Data were compared using a two-tailed unpaired t-Test. Results: 3D printed materials demonstrated low cell adhesion and protein adsorption. Results were similar to those found with materials used in current ophthalmic devices (P>0.05). However it was noted that 3D printed materials demonstrated increased cytotoxicity (P<0.05). Conclusion: 3D printed photopolymer materials demonstrated a similar biocompatibility response to currently used materials and may allow for the development of customisable ophthalmic devices or organs. Subsequent testing will determine the adhesion response to 3D printed materials containing anti-scarring agents.
Theophylline is a well-known CNS stimulant that may cause marked increase of spontaneous and forced motor activity of rats. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of pretreatment of rats with ethanolic ginger extract on theophylline-induced increase of motor activity of rats. The present study investigated the effect of theophylline, alone and after pretreatment of rats with different doses of ethanolic ginger extract on locomotor activity and forced performance of rats. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of ethanolic ginger extract in doses of 50,100,200 and 400 mg/kg/d 60 minutes before theophylline in a dose of 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous activity and forced motor performance of rats. The present work concluded that ethanolic ginger extract may possess a potential skeletal muscle relaxant activity owed to its marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on theophylline-induced increase of motor activity of rats.